Marble has been used in the patios of Caesar, in the palaces of Europe, and throughout the world in more recent times. Marble is admired in residential and commercial areas, such as foyers, hallways, fireplaces, furniture pieces and most prominently in bathrooms.
Marble is a metamorphic rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, either dolostone or limestone. This metamorphic process causes a total recrystallization of actual rock into an interlocking mosaic of calcite and dolomite crystals. The temperatures and pressure required to shape marble normally destroy any fossils and sedimentary textures available in the original rock.
Marble is well-known in making fine art; overall, it is admired for its refined, royal appearance. Marble is recognized for its flexibility in the making of relics from sculptures to tributes, and wall tiles and floor tiles.
Marble is an intermediate or coarse-grained calcite, which has metamorphosed from limestone. Marble comes in white, grey, pink, green, black, and brown to name just a few colors. The surface pattern can even appear as flames, patches or stripes. Marble that contains calcite with dolomite is known as dolomite marble. Marble is a "virtual" of limestone, being a derivative from that meticulous stone, and having gone through further heat and pressure deep in the earth over the course of millions of years. Marble is known as a metamorphic rock, having been subject to heat and pressure to the point where various fossilized materials, with limestone and sundry minerals, have become re-crystallized.
This process actually changes the rock from limestone to marble. This naturally decorative material is distinguished by vein-like patterns that differ depending on the minerals and the quantities of those minerals that were present during the re-crystallization process of the original limestone parent rock. These patterns offer the exclusive look known to many, as well as the rich range of colors that are some of the most lively available in any natural stone. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of extremely pure limestones. The characteristic whirl and layer of many colored marble varieties are normally due to various mineral impurities such as clay, sand, silt, chert or iron oxides which were originally present in the limestone layers. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the powerful pressure and heat by metamorphism.
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Granite is a preferred surface in both residential and commercial buildings, not only because it is visually striking, but because it took ages to create. Granite was formed deep in the earth, and is the end result of heat and pressure applied over thousands of years.
Granite is called as an igneous rock that is further described as “intrusive”. Granite was formed when liquid magma is forced between layers of rock, where it ultimately cools and forms a layer of its own. Granite magma in fact carries many potential origins but it must also break in other rocks. Most of the granite intrusions are emplaced at depth within the coating, normally greater than 1.5 km and up to 50 km depth within thick continental coating.
Granite is a merger of precious elements such as quartz, feldspar and mica among few other trace elements. The cooling process of granite is quite slow, the new layers of rock are protected by the layers above and below where the molten magma had been forced. The mineral elements that have been balanced in the cooling magma define the crystalline look of this unique natural stone. Due the hard origin and the lengthy process, granite creates an amazingly hard and durable surface.
Granite has been used extensively as dimensional stone and tiles in residential and commercial buildings and in making monuments. With large amounts of acid rain in parts of the globe, granite has started to replace marble as a monument material, since it is much more durable. Polished granite has been an admired choice for kitchen countertops due to its durability and visual qualities.
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Limestone is best recognized in architecture, due to the many landmarks around the world created primarily of limestone, particularly in North America and Europe. Limestone started gaining popularity during early 19th and 20th centuries. Train stations, banks and other structures from that era are usually created from limestone. It is a non-clastic sedimentary rock basically produced from the mineral calcite and sediment. The main source of limestone is the "limy ooze" shaped in oceans.
Pure limestone could be almost white. Due to its impurities, such as clay, organic remains, sand, and other materials, many limestones come in various colors, particularly on weathered surfaces.
Limestone might be crystalline, clastic, granular, or huge, depending on the system of formation. Folk and Dunham classifications are described more precisely when it comes to limestones.
Travertine is a compact variety of limestone created along streams, particularly near waterfalls and around hot and cold springs. Calcium carbonate is mixed where evaporated water leaves a solution, which is supersaturated with other chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, an absorbent or cellular form of limestone, can also be found near waterfalls. In nature, limestone is found to occur in unbalanced purity, usually as a part of the calcium molecules being restored by magnesium.
The rock holding more than 95% of calcium carbonate is known high-calcium limestone.
Re-crystallized limestone takes high-quality polish and is used as a building stone. It is then known as 'marble'. A variety of other names are related to limestone depending upon the texture, stays of foraminifera, mollusks and other shell-forming creatures. For example, oolitic, pisolitic, reostone, crinoidal, foraminiferal, calcareous ooze, bryozoa, argillaceous and hydraulic are all variations of the material known as limestone.
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Travertine is a porous decorative stone, used as a building material dating back to the rise of Western civilization in ancient Greece. Travertine is one of the most popular stone materials used today on exterior and interior applications in areas such as kitchens and bathrooms, including flooring, countertops, walls and backsplashes. Described as a cross between marble and limestone, travertine has been an admired building material for thousands of years because of its durability and the ability of masons to shape it to fit almost any purpose.
Travertine is a type of limestone composed of a material known as calcium carbonate that was produced from deposits built up over time from rivers, springs, and subterranean water sources. This resultant stone is a soft, absorbent, naturally decorative material that offers a soft cream hue, traditional beauty and durable surface. Travertine is most commonly quarried in Italy, Turkey and the surrounding regions.